Pour ne pas vivre seul(e) : Figures et déguisements de la solitude (French Edition)

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Donques lisez avec heureux presaige Les los de Laure, esperant par vos faictz De verd laurier les honneurs plus perfaictz.

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A fantastic sonnet to speak of the nationalistic endeavors of Petrarchism as does Kennedy , this poem also presents us an evaluative presentation of Mellin and to what extent his Petrarchism was owing to—and superseded by—his political attachments to the crown. He pleads with them to tell of his extensive power that brought riches and happiness to the people.

Ups, bist Du ein Mensch? / Are you a human?

However, his experiments with the verse form are quite praiseworthy. Still, his devotions were to other forms. Appearing after , however, discussion of these will be reserved for the Epilogue to this study. Laumonier vi. Bearing no traces of a Petrarchian thematics, this sonnet regains interest in its experimentation with the tercet pair.

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Refusing to sacrifice his poetic sense to the constraints of the verse form CCD EED , Peletier demonstrates a certain amount of poetic souplesse in maintaining the form, while manipulating it to serve his poetic ends. Citing, in the second quatrain, the necessity to imitate Nature, he further foretells Du Bellay in providing an earlier organic allegory to language and translation. With Peletier, the Petrarchan sonnet was becoming Petrarchian as it began to bare its new French face. Upon a second reading, taking into account the syntactic clarity, structural harmony, and semantic simplicity cited by Kennedy, one realizes the geniality of the Peletier translation.

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Rhythmically and rhetorically French in form, Peletier renders the Petrarchan original without losing any of the thematic force. As a lawyer, Philieul, it is safe to say, was not responding to any lyrical imperative in his translations of Petrarch. Still operating from a universal and constrained model, the French poets after Philieul and Peletier would have more liberty and opportunity to express their own poetic singularity in their poetic creations with the sonnet verse form.

But, flourish this seedling would, embedding its roots into all of France and expanding outward. And, like a vine that is planted in new soil, this form would take on the character of its surroundings— becoming, as prescribed in the models of Peletier and Du Bellay, distinctively French.

With poets composing lyrical verse in the wake of the likes of Rabelais, Marguerite de Navarre and Marot, what has come to be known as the Coterie lyonnaise constitutes a historical imperative in formulating an anthropology of the sonnet. A city of banking, industry, textiles, learning, publishing, etc. As unconventional and troublesome as negotiating its relations to the sonnet may be, Lyon is an essential crossroads for the development and the understanding of Petrarchism and the Petrarchian sonnet in the French Renaissance.

It is here that the latest in the highly-fashionable Italian arts and letters made its initial entry—alongside the royal processions of the king—into France. To this list, we could likewise add the literary works of Albert Baur, Paul Ardouin and Joseph Aynard that treat the renaissance lyonnaise.


Lyon was, likewise, a favorite stopping place for many literary greats of the early 16th century: Marot and Mellin often passed through this cultural mecca in their travels from Paris to Italy; Marguerite de Navarre was located here for a spell; and, erudite journeyman Jacques Peletier was a frequent guest to Lyon. Challenging at many levels, the presence of women composing poetry is a first eye-opener; but, the difficulties of classification do not end there. First, it testifies to a veritable presence of and respect for Neoplatonism in the Valois court of the s most particularly amongst the female readership.

Ils ne refusent pas le legs du Moyen Age. Schmidt defines the blason as follows: Un blason? This is the stated objective; but, still more often than not, poets could not resist the urge to make women blush and their male poetic comrades grin. From a Neoplatonic theory of desire and suffering, the tear and sigh are obvious. As one could presuppose, in the same way that the forehead gives way to the mind and the bosom the heart, the eyebrow is a gateway to the all-important window to the soul, the eye.

In other words, conversely, the Scevian dizain is nothing more than the French version of the Italian sonnet. At the same time, it was also patently Neoplatonistic Weber Her Rymes, a mixed volume of huitains, dizains, longer verse, terza rime, etc.


Ardouin, Saulnier and the recent Droz critical re-edition by Elise Rajchenbach all attest to this. In other words, is the suffering caused by the lyrical evocation of an inaccessible sacred just a means to ascend poetically towards the ideal of Amour? In the case of the Scevian dizain versus the Petrarchian sonnet, the former does not set up a repetitious symmetry of competing quatrain stanzas that are abruptly interrupted and then resolved with a concluding quatrain.

Following the logic of the anthropological model I proposed in Chapter Two, the Scevian dizain—while thematically germane to its transalpine predecessor—is, in the end, less dynamic of a structure, and for the reasons previously discussed, less anthropological in structure and less effective lyrically.

Before closing the book on the Scevian dizain, it will be beneficial to examine one more example of this structure if only for the purposes of comparing it to other Lyonnais sonnets. Car ferme amour sans eux est plus que nue. There is very little neatness to the conclusion of the Scevian dizain—which may explain the fragmentary nature and lack of integration suggested by Frelick However, in setting the Scevian dizain aside, I would like to conclude in saying that this very fragmentary nature and, perhaps most especially, the organization of these individual rime sparse into a numerically-driven volume of parsimonious dizains treating the Petrarchan, Neoplatonic, lyrical and, ultimately, human theme of unattainable desire supports their cohesiveness in this collective volume.

Repeated themes—of the eye, the Basilisk, the city of Lyon, the Phoenix, the Girouette, etc.

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Nevertheless, I will reproduce and touch upon one such sonnet in order to demonstrate the workings of what almost seems like an oxymoron: the Scevian sonnet. Parquoy ayant, Dames, devant vos yeux Ces rayz tressaintz de sy haulte efficace, En les louant nostre honneur louerez. Also including multiple mythological references, its Neoplatonic message is one of the transcendence and upward progression attained by Marguerite. A noteworthy and intriguing case, it is ultimately outside the interests of the current study. In this work, there is a remarkably equal balance between Neoplatonic theories of love and the Petrarchian poetics of love.

As we recall from Chapter Two, it was this very same Sappho who gave us the lyrical poetic genre in antiquity i. Although the direct ancestor of this poetry was Petrarch, it also appears to develop quite naturally from the courtly love tradition, and can incorporate elements drawn from classical models. Petrarchistic poetry fits acceptably into a social setting where a higher standard of sexual morality is expected of women than of men. Clearly, a reversal of the petrarchistic situation, whereby the woman becomes the suitor, raises difficulties and imposes modifications.

To a public accustomed to the convention of the tortured poet kneeling before his cold-hearted lady, it might seem distasteful or even ludicrous to contemplate a woman expressing hopeless love for an unresponsive man.

Accordingly, we may expect to find women poets mourning misunderstanding, absence, desertion, or bereavement rather than unrequited love. Again, it was perfectly acceptable for a petrarchistic poet to address his verses to a real woman and include her name in the poem; it would be surprising to find a woman doing the same thing […]. Christine de Pisan—do exist.

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Karen F. This move fuses intellectual and erotic facets of female subjectivity, simultaneously displaying learning and wit and a spectacular role as desirable woman. It would not be a futile enterprise to study all twenty-four of her sonnets. II Despite the apparent euphoric and ecstatic fulfillment suggested by the passionate apostrophes that dominate the ottavo of this sonnet, closer examination reveals that never is—or has been—this desire fulfilled.

Passion in this poem is the pain of desire unfulfilled and the agony of unrequited love. Disposed as ABBA ABBA, the repeated, internal, embraced B rhyme consists of four adjectives that speak to this very longing espandues, atendues, despendues, tendues and the first three external rhymes A suggest rejection destournez, retournez, obstinez. The final verse before the 8 : 6 break finishes with the promise destinez of more bitter suffering pires maus. Likewise, there is only one adverb in the first eight verses, vainement; and it is repeated twice to express how futile this longing was.

Unfulfilled female desire is presented succinctly in this apostrophic complaint of time and energy wasted in hoping for the attention and love of a desired other. Donq des humains sont les lasses esprits De dous repos et de sommeil espris. In the opening ottava of this sonnet, there is a rather cogent syllogistic form in operation that places in opposition an all-powerful, female heavenly being who is love and a desiring, but lyrically impotent poetess who seeks this love through verse.

Infatuated with sleep and rest, the weak human spirit is not prone to the divine attributes that allow for love.

Pour ne pas vivre seul(e) : Figures et déguisements de la solitude (French Edition)

The concluding quatrain is a feminine gesture of abandonment and lassitude. With a beautiful syllogistic pattern T1 T2 C —that goes far to proving the high-level of Petrarchian lyricism present in this poem—of a woman evoking deity and trying to transcend the confinement of her mortal body, she finally has to concede the fact that as a human all her efforts are vain. Ainsi Amour inconstamment me meine: Et quand je pense avoir plus de douleur, Sans y penser je me treuve hors de peine. As inconstant as the human being, Love is defined in this sonnet as the source of human errance.

Though not employing the syllogistic structure—as above—to which the sonnet form lends itself, this brief poem speaks to both the Neoplatonism of errance amoureuse as well as the Petrarchan antitheses that define the form. Catullus translator F. May I perish if Lesbia does not love me. By what token?

I am perpetually crying out upon her, but may I perish if I do not love her. Cornish ] All themes we hold as proper to the lyric are present in this brief poem.

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Poem V [Let us live, my Lesbia, and love, and value at one farthing all the talk of crabbed old men. Suns may set and rise again. For us, when the short light has once set, remains to be slept the sleep of one unbroken night. Give me a thousand kisses, then a hundred, then another thousand, then a second hundred, then yet another thousand, then a hundred.

Then, when we have made up many thousands, we will confuse our counting, that we may not know the reckoning, nor any malicious person blight them with an evil eye, when he knows that our kisses are so many. Las, te pleins tu? Chacun en soy en son ami vivra. Et ne me puis donner contentement, Si hors de moy ne fay quelque saillie.

XVIII With the first three verses launched with verbs in the imperative tense and the first verse alone bearing three imperative commands, we certainly have issue with the grammatical realm of the sonnet: the imperative.